Multi-level control of quantum coherence exponentially reduces communication and computation resources required for a variety of applications of quantum information science. However, it also introduces complex dynamics to be understood and controlled. These dynamics can be simplified and made intuitive by employing group theory to visualize certain four-level dynamics in a "Bell frame" comprising an effective pair of uncoupled two-level qubits. We demonstrate control of a Josephson phase qudit with a single multi-tone excitation, achieving successive population inversions between the first and third levels and highlighting constraints imposed by the two-qubit representation. Furthermore, the finite anharmonicity of our system results in a rich dynamical evolution, where the two Bell-frame qubits undergo entangling-disentangling oscillations in time, explained by a Cartan gate decomposition representation. The Bell frame constitutes a promising tool for control of multi-level quantum systems, providing an intuitive clarity to complex dynamics.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We acknowledge the support of ISF Bikura Grant No. 1567/12 and ERC Grant No. 335933. We thank Christiane Koch for fruitful discussion.
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