How to Date a City Wall? The Case Study of Middle Bronze Age Lachish

Yosef Garfinkel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The so-called ‘Revetment’, is a massive wall that has been entirely exposed over a length of c. 2 km at Tel Lachish in the years 1933–4. Based on historical considerations and the well-known Sennacherib relief that depicts the Assyrian attack of 701 bc, the wall was dated to the Iron Age. This was decided in London in 1932, before the excavation had even begun. Current field observations, however, indicate that this fortification system was built in the Middle Bronze Age, about a millennium earlier than suggested so far. This study has two objectives: to summarise the available data on this wall, emphasising 21 points along its circumference, and to analyse the implications of the new data for the dating of this construction. This is one of the best exposed Middle Bronze Age fortifications in the Levant.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPalestine Exploration Quarterly
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • City wall
  • dating methods
  • Fortifications
  • J. L. Starkey
  • Lachish
  • Middle Bronze Age
  • Revetment
  • Sennacherib relief


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