The doping of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) presents an additional knob beyond size and shape for controlling the electronic properties. An important problem for impurity doping is associated with resolving the location and structural surrounding of the dopant within the small NCs, in light of tendency for driving of the impurity atom to the surface of the NC. A post-synthesis diffusion-based doping approach for introducing metal impurities into InAs NCs is described and characterized. This enables accurate correlation between the emerged electronic properties and the doping process. Optical absorption spectroscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements revealed the n-type and p-type behavior of the doped NCs, depending on the identity of selected impurities. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy measurements demonstrated the interstitial location of Cu within the InAs NCs, acting as an n-type dopant, which was found to occupy a single unique hexagonal interstitial site within the NC lattice for a wide range of doping levels.