How to survive the 21st century: Three existential threats to humanity

Yuval Noah Harari*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


This paper discusses how the 21st century presents three existential threats to humanity: social and economic upheaval, unprecedented inequality due to the artifcial intelligence revolution and the rise of digital dictatorships. The world is at risk of technology dividing it into wealthy elites and exploited ‘data colonies’. This paper makes the case for better international cooperation in order to tackle global challenges.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)463-468
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Data Protection and Privacy
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Henry Stewart Publications.


  • AI
  • Cooperation
  • Digital dictatorships
  • Existential threats
  • Globalisation
  • Social and economic upheavals
  • Technology risks


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