Key message: A major gene controls flowering pattern in peanut, possibly encoding a TFL1-like. It was subjected to gain/loss events of a deletion and changes in mRNA expression levels, partly explaining the evolution of flowering pattern in Arachis. Abstract: Flowering pattern (FP) is a major characteristic differentiating the two subspecies of cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Subsp. fastigiata possessing flowers on the mainstem (MSF) and a sequential FP, whereas subsp. hypogaea lacks MSF and exhibits an alternate FP. FP is considered the main contributor to plant adaptability, and evidence indicates that its diversification occurred during the several thousand years of domestication. However, the genetic mechanism that controls FP in peanut is unknown. We investigated the genetics of FP in a recombinant inbred population, derivatives of an A. hypogaea by A. fastigiata cross. Lines segregated 1:1 for FP, indicating a single gene effect. Using Axiom_Arachis2 SNP-array, FP was mapped to a small segment in chromosome B02, wherein a Terminal Flowering 1-like (AhTFL1) gene with a 1492 bp deletion was found in the fastigiata line, leading to a truncated protein. Remapping FP in the RIL population with the AhTFL1 indel as a marker increased the LOD score from 53.3 to 158.8 with no recombination in the RIL population. The same indel was found co-segregating with the phenotype in two independent EMS-mutagenized M2 families, suggesting a hotspot for gene conversion. Also, AhTFL1 was significantly less expressed in the fastigiata line compared to hypogaea and in flowering than non-flowering branches. Sequence analysis of the AhTFL1 in peanut world collections indicated significant conservation, supporting the putative role of AhTFL1 in peanut speciation during domestication and modern cultivation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was funded by the Israeli Ministry of Agriculture (Grant No. 200) and an Israel-USA Bilateral Agriculture Research and Development (BARD) Grant (Grant No. IS-5020-17). The funders did not have any scientific part in the study.
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.