Identifying culture-specifics in the content and structure of values

Shalom H. Schwartz, Lilach Sagiv

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

682 Scopus citations


Using data from 88 samples from 40 countries, the authors reevaluate the propositions of a recent values theory and provide criteria for identifying what is culture-specific in value meanings and structure. They confirm the widespread presence of 10 value types, arrayed on a motivational continuum, and organized on virtually universal, orthogonal dimensions: Openness to Change versus Conservation and Self-Transcendence versus Self-Enhancement. Forty-four values demonstrate high cross-cultural consistency of meaning. In the average sample, about 16% of single values diverge from their proto-typical value types, and one pair of motivationally close value types is intermixed. Test-retest and randomly split sample analyses reveal that some two thirds of deviations represent unreliable measurement and one third represent culture-specific characteristics. Ways to identify and interpret the latter are presented.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)92-116
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1995


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