Imaging techniques for assaying lymphocyte activation in action

Lakshmi Balagopalan, Eilon Sherman, Valarie A. Barr, Lawrence E. Samelson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations


Imaging techniques have greatly improved our understanding of lymphocyte activation. Technical advances in spatial and temporal resolution and new labelling tools have enabled researchers to directly observe the activation process. Consequently, research using imaging approaches to study lymphocyte activation has expanded, providing an unprecedented level of cellular and molecular detail in the field. As a result, certain models of lymphocyte activation have been verified, others have been revised and yet others have been replaced with new concepts. In this article, we review the current imaging techniques that are used to assess lymphocyte activation in different contexts, from whole animals to single molecules, and discuss the advantages and potential limitations of these methods.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)21-33
Number of pages13
JournalNature Reviews Immunology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank R. Kortum for critically reading the manuscript. This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Center for Cancer Research (CCR).


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