Molecular imaging allows noninvasive assessment of drug distribution across pharmacological barriers. Thus, it plays an increasingly important role in efforts to understand the interactions of molecules with membrane transporters during drug development and in clinical pharmacology. We describe established and emerging imaging modalities utilized for studying transporter expression and function. We further present examples of how molecular imaging could provide insights into the contribution of transporters to drug disposition and effects.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors wish to thank Ms. Judy Dotan who assisted in the proofreading of the manuscript. This work was supported by grants from the Israel Science Foundation (ISF; #506/13), The National Institute for Psychobiology in Israel, and the Israeli Cancer Research Foundation (ICRF).
© 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics