Spatially integrated switching architectures have been recently investigated in an attempt to provide switching capability for networks based on spatial division multiplexing (SDM) fibers, as well as to reduce the implementation cost. These architectures rely on the following switching paradigms, furnishing different degrees of spectral and spatial switching granularity: independent switching, which offers full spatial-spectral flexibility; joint-switching, which treats all spatial modes as a single entity; and fractional-joint switching, whereby subgroups of spatial modes are switched together as independent units. The last two paradigms are categorized as spatial group switching solutions since the spatial resources (modes, cores, or single-mode fibers) are switched in groups. In this paper, we compare the performance (in terms of spectral utilization, data occupancy, and network switching infrastructure cost) of the SDM switching paradigms listed above for varying spatial and spectral switching granularities in a network planning scenario. The spatial granularity is related to the grouping of the spatial resources, whereas the spectral granularity depends on the channel baud rate and the spectral resolution supported by wavelength selective switches (WSS). We consider two WSS technologies for handling of the SDM switching paradigms: 1) the current WSS realization, 2) WSS technology with a factortwo resolution improvement. Bundles of single-mode fibers are assumed across all links as a near-term SDM solution. Results show that the performance of all switching paradigms converge as the size of the traffic demands increases, but finer spatial and spectral granularity can lead to significant performance improvement for small traffic demands. Additionally, we demonstrate that spectral switching granularity must be adaptable with respect to the size of the traffic in order to have a globally optimum spectrum utilization in an SDM network. Finally, we calculate the number of required WSSs and their port count for each of the switching architectures under evaluation, and estimate the switching-related cost of an SDM network, assuming the current WSS realization as well as the improved resolution WSS technology.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2017 IEEE.
- SDM networks
- Spatial and spectral granularity
- Superchannel switching