Implications of COVID‐19 Mitigation Policies for National Well‐Being: A Systems Perspective

Nikita Strelkovskii*, Elena Rovenskaya, Leena Ilmola‐sheppard, Robin Bartmann, Yonat Rein‐sapir, Eran Feitelson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The ongoing COVID‐19 crisis and measures aimed at curbing the pandemic have a wide-spread impact on various aspects of well‐being, such as housing, social connections, and others. Moreover, COVID‐19 does not affect all population groups equally. This study analyzes the impact of major COVID‐19 non‐pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on a set of national well‐being indicators from the most recent version of the OECD Well‐Being Framework. Using causal loop diagrams (systems maps), we consider direct and indirect effects of these policies on various components of the national well‐being system. Our results show that business closures directly and/or indirectly impact more national well‐being components than any other policy. The most affected national wellbeing components by all policies are life satisfaction, perceived health, and prevalence of depressive symptoms. In addition, we specify how the impact of the anti‐pandemic measures differs for various population strata, using the degree of income and employment loss as key stratifying variables. Our insights can be helpful to identify and promote measures that can alleviate the adverse effects of the COVID‐19 crisis on the national well‐being.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number433
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

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© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • COVID‐19
  • Causal loop diagram
  • National well‐being
  • Systems thinking


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