Incorporating socioeconomic and political drivers of international collaboration into marine conservation planning

Noam Levin, Ayesha I.T. Tulloch, Ascelin Gordon, Tessa Mazor, Nils Bunnefeld, Salit Kark

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


International collaboration can be crucial in determining the outcomes of conservation actions. Here, we propose a framework for incorporating demographic, socioeconomic, and political data into conservation prioritization in complex regions shared by multiple countries. As a case study, we quantitatively apply this approach to one of the world's most complex and threatened biodiversity hotspots: the Mediterranean Basin. Our analysis of 22 countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea showed that the strongest economic, trade, tourism, and political ties are clearly among the three northwestern countries of Italy, France, and Spain. Although economic activity between countries is often seen as a threat, it may also serve as an indicator of the potential of collaboration in conservation. Using data for threatened marine vertebrate species, we show how areas prioritized for conservation shift spatially when economic factors are used as a surrogate to favor areas where collaborative potential in conservation is more likely.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)547-563
Number of pages17
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Hugh Possingham, Chrystal Mantyka-Pringle, and Carissa Klein for comments on the manuscript. We thank three anonymous reviewers whose suggestions helped improve the clarity of the manuscript. This research was conducted with support of funding from the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions.


  • Marxan
  • Mediterranean Sea
  • international collaboration
  • marine conservation planning
  • spatial prioritization


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