Henry Brice, Noam Siegelman, Mark Van Den Bunt, Stephen J. Frost, Jay G. Rueckl, Kenneth R. Pugh, Ram Frost

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Statistical learning (SL) approaches to reading maintain that proficient reading requires assimilation of rich statistical regularities in the writing system. Reading skills in developing first-language readers are predicted by individual differences in sensitivity to regularities in mappings from orthography to phonology (O-P) and semantics (O-S), where good readers rely more on O-P consistency, and less on O-S associations. However, how these regularities are leveraged by second-language (L2) learners remains an open question. We utilize an individual-differences approach, measuring L2 English learners' sensitivity to O-P, O-S, and frequency during word-naming, across two years of immersion. We show that reliance on O-P is leveraged by better readers, while reliance on O-S is slower to develop, characterizing less proficient readers. All factors explain substantial individual variance in L2 reading skills. These findings show how SL plays a key role in L2 reading development through its role in assimilating sublexical regularities between print and speech.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)737-758
Number of pages22
JournalStudies in Second Language Acquisition
Issue number3
StatePublished - 16 Jul 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by the ERC advanced grant awarded to Ram Frost (project 692502-L2STAT), the Israel Science Foundation (grant 217/14 awarded to Ram Frost), and by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development at the National Institutes of Health (RO1 HD 067364 awarded to Kenneth Pugh and Ram Frost, and PO1 HD 01994 awarded to Jay Rueckl).

Publisher Copyright:


Dive into the research topics of 'INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN L2 LITERACY ACQUISITION'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this