Neural oscillations in the low-gamma range (30-50 Hz) have been implicated in neuronal synchrony, computation, behavior, and cognition. Abnormal low-gamma activity, hypothesized to reflect impaired synchronization, has been evidenced in several brain disorders. Thus, understanding the relations between gamma oscillations, neuronal synchrony and behavior is a major research challenge. We used a brain-machine interface (BMI) to train monkeys to specifically increase low-gamma power in selected sites of motor cortex to move a cursor and obtain a reward. The monkeys learned to robustly generate oscillatory gamma waves, which were accompanied by a dramatic increase of spiking synchrony of highly precise spatiotemporal patterns. The findings link volitional control of LFP oscillations, neuronal synchrony, and the behavioral outcome. Subjects@ ability to directly modulate specific patterns of neuronal synchrony provides a powerful approach for understanding neuronal processing in relation to behavior and for the use of BMIs in a clinical setting.