In this paper, we investigate evolutionarily recent changes in the distributions of speech sounds in the world's languages. In particular, we explore the impact of language contact in the past two millennia on today's distributions. Based on three extensive databases of phonological inventories, we analyse the discrepancies between the distribution of speech sounds of ancient and reconstructed languages, on the one hand, and those in present-day languages, on the other. Furthermore, we analyse the degree to which the diffusion of speech sounds via language contact played a role in these discrepancies. We find evidence for substantive differences between ancient and present-day distributions, as well as for the important role of language contact in shaping these distributions over time. Moreover, our findings suggest that the distributions of speech sounds across geographic macro-areas were homogenized to an observable extent in recent millennia. Our findings suggest that what we call the Implicit Uniformitarian Hypothesis, at least with respect to the composition of phonological inventories, cannot be held uncritically. Linguists who would like to draw inferences about human language based on present-day cross-linguistic distributions must consider their theories in light of even short-term language evolution. This article is part of the theme issue 'Reconstructing prehistoric languages'.
|Original language||American English|
|Journal||Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences|
|State||Published - 10 May 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Data accessibility. Data and code required to reproduce all results presented in this paper are available as electronic supplementary material at: https://github.com/bambooforest/inferring-paper. Competing interests. We declare we have no competing interests. Funding. Steven Moran was funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grant No. PCEFP1_186841). Acknowledgements. We would like to thank Haim Dubossarsky, Elad Eisen, Caleb Everett, Dmitry Nikolaev, Yves Tillé, and two anonymous reviewers for their suggestions and feedback. The usual disclaimers apply.
© 2021 The Author(s).
- language contact
- language evolution