Inherited and Environmental Factors Influence Human Monocyte Heterogeneity

Amit A. Patel*, Simon Yona

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Blood monocytes develop in the bone marrow before being released into the peripheral circulation. The circulating monocyte pool is composed of multiple subsets, each with specialized functions. These cells are recruited to repopulate resident monocyte-derived cells in the periphery and also to sites of injury. Several extrinsic factors influence the function and quantity of monocytes in the blood. Here, we outline the impact of sex, ethnicity, age, sleep, diet, and exercise on monocyte subsets and their function, highlighting that steady state is not a single physiological condition. A clearer understanding of the relationship between these factors and the immune system may allow for improved therapeutic strategies.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2581
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
StatePublished - 7 Nov 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright © 2019 Patel and Yona.


  • age
  • diet
  • exercise
  • inflammation
  • macrophage
  • monocyte
  • sex
  • sleep


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