Two-dimensional (2D) hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites are a preeminent class of low-cost semiconductors whose inherent structural tunability and attractive photophysical properties have led to the successful fabrication of solar cells with high power conversion efficiencies. Despite the observed superior stability of 2D lead iodide perovskites over their 3D parent structures, an understanding of their thermochemical profile is missing. Herein, the calorimetric studies reveal that the Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) series, incorporating the monovalent-monoammonium spacer cations of pentylammonium (PA) and hexylammonium (HA): (PA)2(MA)n-1PbnI3n+1 (n = 2-6) and (HA)2(MA)n-1PbnI3n+1 (n = 2-4) have a negative enthalpy of formation, relative to their binary iodides. In contrast, the enthalpy of formation for the Dion-Jacobson (DJ) series, incorporating the divalent and cyclic diammonium cations of 3- and 4-(aminomethyl)piperidinium (3AMP and 4AMP respectively): (3AMP)(MA)n-1PbnI3n+1 (n = 2-5) and (4AMP)(MA)n-1PbnI3n+1 (n = 2-4) have a positive enthalpy of formation. In addition, for the (PA)2(MA)n-1PbnI3n+1 family of materials, we report the phase-pure synthesis and single crystal structure of the next member of the series (PA)2(MA)5Pb6I19 (n = 6), and its optical properties, marking this the second n = 6, bulk member published to date. Particularly, (PA)2(MA)5Pb6I19 (n = 6) has negative enthalpy of formation as well. Additionally, the analysis of the structural parameters and optical properties between the examined RP and DJ series offers guiding principles for the targeted design and synthesis of 2D perovskites for efficient solar cell fabrication. Although the distortions of the Pb-I-Pb equatorial angles are larger in the DJ series, the significantly smaller I···I interlayer distances lead to overall smaller band gap values, in comparison with the RP series. Our film stability studies on the RP and DJ perovskites series reveal consistent observations with the thermochemical findings, pointing out to the lower extrinsic stability of the DJ materials in ambient air.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Grant SC0012541. E.S.V. acknowledges the Dr. John N. Nicholson fellowship through Northwestern University. This work made use of the NUANCE Center and IMSERC facilities of Northwestern University, which have received support from the Soft and Hybrid Nanotechnology Experimental (SHyNE) Resource (NSF ECCS-1542205), the MRSEC program (NSF DMR-1720139) at the Materials Research Center, the International Institute for Nanotechnology (IIN), the Keck Foundation, and the State of Illinois through the IIN. Calorimetry in this work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science, Grant DE-FG02-03ER46053.