Internet-Based Versus Paper-and-Pencil Assessment: Measuring Career Decision-Making Difficulties

Itamar Gati*, Noa Saka

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


The present study compared English and Hebrew paper-and-pencil and Internet versions of the Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ). First, the response pattern of 417 clients who filled out the Hebrew paper-and-pencil version was compared with the response pattern found for a matched sample of 837 individuals who visited a career-related Internet site and filled out the Hebrew Internet version of the CDDQ. The internal consistency reliability of the Internet version was similar to that of the paper-and-pencil version (.87 and .88, respectively). The structures derived from the 10 categories of difficulties were also highly similar in the two groups (Spearman rank-order correlation of .87), and both structures resembled the theoretical one proposed by Gati, Krausz, and Osipow. However, the response pattern of 24% of the Internet users could be characterized as "questionable," indicating that these users' difficulties should be interpreted and the users should be offered feedback with reservations. A similar comparison of the English paper-and-pencil questionnaire (n = 403) and the English Internet CDDQ (n = 182) also revealed a high correspondence between the versions, in both their structure and their pattern of scale reliabilities.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)397-416
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Career Assessment
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2001


  • CDDQ
  • Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire
  • Career decision making
  • Career decision-making difficulties
  • Career indecision
  • Indecision
  • Internet
  • Internet-based assessment


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