Intradermal naked plasmid DNA immunization: Mechanisms of action

Mazal Elnekave, Karina Furmanov, Avi Hai Hovav*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Plasmid DNA is a promising vaccine modality that is regularly examined in prime-boost immunization regimens. Recent advances in skin immunity increased our understanding of the sophisticated cutaneous immune network, which revived scientific interest in delivering vaccines to the skin. Intradermal administration of plasmid DNA via needle injection is a simple and inexpensive procedure that exposes the plasmid and its encoded antigen to the dermal immune surveillance system. This triggers unique mechanisms for eliciting local and systemic immunity that can confer protection against pathogens and tumors. Understanding the mechanisms of intradermal plasmid DNA immunization is essential for enhancing and modulating its immunogenicity. With regard to vaccination, this is of greater importance as this routine injection technique is highly desirable for worldwide immunization. This article will focus on the current understanding of the mechanisms involved in antigen expression and presentation during primary and secondary syringe and needle intradermal plasmid DNA immunization.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1169-1182
Number of pages14
JournalExpert Review of Vaccines
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2011


  • DNA vaccines
  • T cells
  • antigen expression
  • antigen presentation
  • dendritic cells
  • immunity
  • intradermal immunization
  • plasmid
  • skin


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