Recently, a single study revealed a new complex composed of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR6, and CD36 induced by fibrillary A peptides, the hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Unlike TLRs located on the plasma membrane that dimerize on the membrane after ligand binding to their extracellular domain, the TLR4-TLR6 –CD36 complex assembly has been suggested to be induced by intracellular signals from CD36, similar to integrin inside-out signaling. However, the assembly site of TLR4-TLR6 –CD36 and the domains participating in A-induced signaling is still unknown. By interfering with TLR4-TLR6 dimerization using a TLR4-derived peptide, we show that receptor assembly is abrogated within the plasma membrane. Furthermore, we reveal that the transmembrane domains of TLR4 and TLR6 have an essential role in receptor dimerization and activation. Inhibition of TLR4-TLR6 assembly was associated with reduced secretion of proinflammatory mediators from microglia cells, ultimately rescuing neurons from death. Our findings support TLR4-TLR6 dimerization induced by A. Moreover, we shed new light on TLR4-TLR6 assembly and localization and show the potential of inhibiting TLR4-TLR6 dimerization as a treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
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© 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.