Introduction: cities and identities

Daniel A. Bell*, Avner de Shalit

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


We are familiar with the idea that nations need identities. But we are less familiar with the idea that cities need identities. We argue that cities do need their own normative identities, which we term ‘ethoses’, and that it is morally permissible for cities to protect their own ethoses, sometimes even to challenge the state and its values. We spell out this argument in the introduction to a special issue on ‘Cities and Identities’ and the contributors illustrate the argument by providing an account of the distinctive ethoses of six cities: London, Qingdao, Tokyo, Mumbai, Istanbul, and Amsterdam.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)637-646
Number of pages10
JournalCritical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Cities
  • city-zens
  • civicism
  • community
  • ethos
  • identities
  • spirit of cities
  • strolling method


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