Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The activity and the expertise of the group in the photophysics and photochemistry of light sensitive molecules resulted in numerous collaborations and successful project applications. Together with the physicist Peter Entel (also of Duisburg University), the interdisciplinary graduate college GRK277 “Structure and Dynamics of Heterogeneous Systems” was proposed and funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) from 1997 to 2005 with the goal to study structure and relaxation processes of large molecular systems, non-magnetic and magnetic clusters and optoelectronic materials. This program strengthened the interdisciplinary collaboration between the Theoretical Physics and the Theoretical Chemistry Sections in Duisburg and allowed a number of Ph.D. students (including one of the present authors, Oliver Weingart) to successfully complete their thesis. Another interdisciplinary project developed with the Theoretical Physics Section, funded by the DFG from 2001 to 2003, investigated the ground and excited state reactivity of the retinal chromophore and retinal models by means of molecular dynamics simulation (“Ab initio-, Tight-Binding-and QM³ theory of realistic rhodopsin models”).