## Abstract

Right-truncated data arise when observations are ascertained retrospectively, and only subjects who experience the event of interest by the time of sampling are selected. Such a selection scheme, without adjustment, leads to biased estimation of covariate effects in the Cox proportional hazards model. The existing methods for fitting the Cox model to right-truncated data, which are based on the maximization of the likelihood or solving estimating equations with respect to both the baseline hazard function and the covariate effects, are numerically challenging. We consider two alternative simple methods based on inverse probability weighting (IPW) estimating equations, which allow consistent estimation of covariate effects under a positivity assumption and avoid estimation of baseline hazards. We discuss problems of identifiability and consistency that arise when positivity does not hold and show that although the partial tests for null effects based on these IPW methods can be used in some settings even in the absence of positivity, they are not valid in general. We propose adjusted estimating equations that incorporate the probability of observation when it is known from external sources, which results in consistent estimation. We compare the methods in simulations and apply them to the analyses of human immunodeficiency virus latency.

Original language | American English |
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Pages (from-to) | 484-495 |

Number of pages | 12 |

Journal | Biometrics |

Volume | 76 |

Issue number | 2 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1 Jun 2020 |

### Bibliographical note

Funding Information:The authors thank Judith Lok for her help with the interpretation of two types of weights. This research was supported by NIH (grant no. R01NS094610).

Funding Information:

The authors thank Judith Lok for her help with the interpretation of two types of weights. This research was supported by NIH (grant no. R01NS094610).

Publisher Copyright:

© 2019 The International Biometric Society

## Keywords

- positivity assumption
- proportional hazards
- retrospective ascertainment reverse time
- selection bias
- stabilized weights