Is Progressive Chronic Kidney Disease a Slow Acute Kidney Injury?

Larry D. Cowgill*, David J. Polzin, Jonathan Elliott, Mary B. Nabity, Gilad Segev, Gregory F. Grauer, Scott Brown, Cathy Langston, Astrid M. van Dongen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


International Renal Interest Society chronic kidney disease Stage 1 and acute kidney injury Grade I categorizations of kidney disease are often confused or ignored because patients are nonazotemic and generally asymptomatic. Recent evidence suggests these seemingly disparate conditions may be mechanistically linked and interrelated. Active kidney injury biomarkers have the potential to establish a new understanding for traditional views of chronic kidney disease, including its early identification and possible mediators of its progression, which, if validated, would establish a new and sophisticated paradigm for the understanding and approach to the diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of urinary disease in dogs and cats.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)995-1013
Number of pages19
JournalVeterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Disclosure: Dr L.D. Cowgill has served as a paid consultant for IDEXX Laboratories and CEVA Animal Health . He is a member of the Inernational Renal Interest Society and has received gift funding from IDEXX Laboratories to support his research. Dr J. Elliott has served as a paid consultant for Bayer Animal Health , Boehringer Ingelheim , Elanco Animal Health , Idexx Ltd , CEVA Animal Health, Orion Inc , Nextvet Ltd , and Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition . He receives research grant funding from CEVA Animal Health, Elanco Animal Health, Zoetis Animal Health , Royal Canin , and Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition. He is a member of the International Renal Interest Society. Drs D.J. Polzin, M.B. Nabity, G. Segev, G.F. Grauer, S. Brown, C. Langston, and A.M. van Dongen have nothing to disclose.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Elsevier Inc.


  • IRIS AKI grade I
  • IRIS CKD stage 1
  • Kidney biomarkers
  • Progressive chronic kidney disease


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