Isolation and characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T subforms and APETALA1 of the subtropical fruit tree dimocarpus longan

Patrick Winterhagen*, Pimsiri Tiyayon, Alon Samach, Martin Hegele, Jens N. Wünsche

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) is a subtropical evergreen fruit tree, mainly cultivated in Asia. Two putative floral integrator genes, D.longan FLOWERING LOCUS T1 and 2 (DlFT1 and DlFT2) were isolated and both translated sequences revealed a high homology to FT sequences from other plants. Moreover, two APETALA1-like (DlAP1-1 and DlAP1-2) sequences from longan were isolated and characterized. Results indicate that the sequences of these genes are highly conserved, suggesting functions in the longan flowering pathway. Ectopic expression of the longan genes in arabidopsis resulted in different flowering time phenotypes of transgenic plants. Expression experiments reveal a different action of the longan FT genes and indicate that DlFT1 is a flowering promoter, while DlFT2 acts as flowering inhibitor. Overexpression of longan AP1 genes in transgenic arabidopsis results in a range of flowering time phenotypes also including early and late flowering individuals.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)184-190
Number of pages7
JournalPlant Physiology and Biochemistry
StatePublished - Oct 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The research was financially supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through the Sonderforschungsbereich 564, the Eiselen-Stiftung, the Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst Baden-Württemberg, and Partnership Funding Jerusalem-Hohenheim by the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg . We thank M. Nowack for providing arabidopsis seeds, agrobacteria and for supporting plant transformation. We acknowledge the open source availability of PyMol v0.99.


  • Flowering promoter
  • Flowering repressor
  • Flowering time control
  • Transcription factor


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