The article explores the synagogues along the Volga River as a case demonstrating the development of the Jewish communities in the Russian interior, beyond the Pale of Settlement and outside the Russian capitals. The history of synagogues in the Volga region is examined here through the lenses of the history of architecture, the development of Jewish ritual, and the relations between Jews and the Russian authorities, which enabled or hindered the establishment of synagogues. Special attention is paid to the architectural models for the Volga synagogues and the degree of their visibility in the cityscapes.
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