Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key regulator of insect development and reproduction. Given that JH commonly affects adult insect fertility, it has been hypothesized to also regulate behaviors such as dominance and aggression that are associated with reproduction. We tested this hypothesis in the bumble bee Bombus terrestris for which JH has been shown to be the major gonadotropin. We used the allatoxin Precocene-I (P-I) to reduce hemolymph JH titers and replacement therapy with the natural JH to revert this effect. In small orphan groups of workers with similar body size but mixed treatment, P-I treated bees showed lower aggressiveness, oogenesis, and dominance rank compared with control and replacement therapy treated bees. In similar groups in which all bees were treated similarly, there was a clear dominance hierarchy, even in P-I and replacement therapy treatment groups in which the bees showed similar levels of ovarian activation. In a similar experiment in which bees differed in body size, larger bees were more likely to be dominant despite their similar JH treatment and ovarian state. In the last experiment, we show that JH manipulation does not affect dominance rank in groups that had already established a stable dominance hierarchy. These findings solve previous ambiguities concerning whether or not JH affects dominance in bumble bees. JH positively affects dominance, but bees with similar levels of JH can nevertheless establish dominance hierarchies. Thus, multiple factors including JH, body size, and previous experience affect dominance and aggression in social bumble bees.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Michael Schneider and David Zlotkin for helping with behavioral observations. This research was supported by grants from the US-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund (BARD, number IS-4418-11 , and IS-5077-18 , to G.B.) and The Planning and Budgeting Committee (PBC) Fellowship Program for Outstanding Chinese and Indian Post-Doctoral Fellows (to A.P). Appendix A
© 2019 Elsevier Inc.
- Bombus terrestris
- Bumble bee
- Division of labor
- Juvenile hormone
- Social behavior