Retinoic acid (RA) is an important regulator of embryogenesis and tissue homoeostasis. Perturbation of RA signalling causes developmental disorders, osteoarthritis, schizophrenia and several types of tumours. RA is produced by oxidation of retinaldehyde from vitamin A. The main enzyme producing RA in the early embryo is retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2, ALDH1A2). In the present study we describe in depth the kinetic properties and regulation of the human RALDH2 (hRALDH2) enzyme. We show that this enzyme produces RA using in vivo and in vitro assays. We studied the naturally occurring all-trans-, 9-cis- and 13-cis-retinaldehyde isomers as substrates of hRALDH2. Based on the values measured for the Michaelis-Menten constant Km and the maximal rate Vmax , in vitro hRALDH2 displays the same catalytic efficiency for their oxidation. We characterized two known inhibitors of the vertebrate RALDH2 and determined their kinetic parameters on hRALDH2. In addition, RA was studied as a possible inhibitor of hRALDH2 and a regulator of its activity. We show that hRALDH2 is not inhibited by its oxidation product, all-trans-RA, suggesting the absence of a negative feedback regulatory loop. Expression of the Raldh2 gene is known to be regulated by RA itself, suggesting that the main regulation of the hRALDH2 activity level is transcriptional.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
- Enzyme kinetics
- Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase
- Retinoic acid signalling
- Vitamin A metabolism