Ldh and pdh activities in the ischemic brain and the effect of reperfusion—an ex vivo mr study in rat brain slices using hyperpolarized [1-13 c]pyruvate

Gal Sapir, David Shaul, Naama Lev-Cohain, Jacob Sosna, Moshe J. Gomori, Rachel Katz-Brull*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Ischemic stroke is a leading cause for neurologic disability worldwide, for which reper-fusion is the only available treatment. Neuroimaging in stroke guides treatment, and therefore determines the clinical outcome. However, there are currently no imaging biomarkers for the status of the ischemic brain tissue. Such biomarkers could potentially be useful for guiding treatment in patients presenting with ischemic stroke. Hyperpolarized13 C MR of [1-13 C]pyruvate is a clinically translatable method used to characterize tissue metabolism non-invasively in a relevant timescale. The aim of this study was to utilize hyperpolarized [1-13 C]pyruvate to investigate the metabolic consequences of an ischemic insult immediately during reperfusion and upon recovery of the brain tissue. The rates of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were quanti-fied by monitoring the rates of [1-13 C]lactate and [13 C]bicarbonate production from hyperpolarized [1-13 C]pyruvate.31 P NMR of the perfused brain slices showed that this system is suitable for study-ing ischemia and recovery following reperfusion. This was indicated by the levels of the high-energy phosphates (tissue viability) and the chemical shift of the inorganic phosphate signal (tissue pH). Acidification, which was observed during the ischemic insult, has returned to baseline level following reperfusion. The LDH/PDH activity ratio increased following ischemia, from 47.0 ± 12.7 in the control group (n = 6) to 217.4 ± 121.3 in the ischemia-reperfusion group (n = 6). Following the recovery period (ca. 1.5 h), this value had returned to its pre-ischemia (baseline) level, suggesting the LDH/PDH enzyme activity ratio may be used as a potential indicator for the status of the ischemic and recovering brain.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number210
Issue number4
StatePublished - 30 Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Brain slices
  • Dissolu-tion dynamic nuclear polarization
  • Ischemic stroke
  • Lactate dehydrogenase
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase
  • Reperfusion


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