The development of plant leaves follows a common basic program that is flexible and is adjusted according to species, developmental stage and environmental circumstances. Leaves initiate from the flanks of the shoot apical meristem and develop into flat structures of variable sizes and forms. This process is regulated by plant hormones, transcriptional regulators and mechanical properties of the tissue. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how these factors modulate leaf development to yield a substantial diversity of leaf forms. We discuss these issues in the context of leaf initiation, the balance between morphogenesis and differentiation, and patterning of the leaf margin.
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© 2014, Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
- Plant hormones