Legitimation, state repression, and the Sioux massacre at wounded knee

Vincent J. Roscigno*, Julia Miller Cantzler, Salvatore J. Restifo, Joshua Guetzkow

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


The Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890 and the Ghost Dance movement that preceded it offer a compelling sociological case for understanding legitimation, elite framing, and repression. Building on the social movements literature and theoretical insights on power, institutions, and inequality, we engage in multimethod, in-depth analyses of a rich body of archived correspondence from key institutional actors at the time. Doing so contributes to the literature by drawing attention to (1) the cultural foundations of inequality and repression; (2) superordinate framing by political elites and the state; and (3) key institutional conflicts and their consequences. We find that, within an ambiguous colonial context, officials of the Office of Indian Affairs and federal politicians shelved benign military observations and, instead, amplified ethnocentric and threat frames. Force was consequently portrayed as justifiable, which increased the likelihood of the massacre. We conclude by discussing the utility of our results for conceptions of culture, power, inequality, the state, and state violence.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)17-40
Number of pages24
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Mobilization: An International Quarterly.


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