TOP mRNAs are translationally controlled by mitogenic, growth, and nutritional stimuli through a 5′-terminal oligopyrimidine tract. Here we show that LiCl can alleviate the translational repression of these mRNAs when progression through the cell cycle is blocked at G0, G1/S, or G2/M phases in different cell lines and by various physiological and chemical means. This derepressive effect of LiCl does not involve resumption of cell division. Unlike its efficient derepressive effect in mitotically arrested cells, LiCl alleviates inefficiently the repression of TOP mRNAs in amino acid-deprived cells and has no effect in lymphoblastoids whose TOP mRNAs are constitutively repressed even when they are proliferating. LiCl is widely used as a relatively selective inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3. However, inhibition per se of this enzyme by more specific drugs failed to derepress the translation of TOP mRNAs, implying that relief of the translational repression of TOP mRNAs by LiCl is carried out in a glycogen synthase kinase-3-independent manner. Moreover, this effect is apparent, at least in some cell lines, in the absence of S6-kinase 1 activation and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation, thus further supporting the notion that translational control of TOP mRNAs does not rely on either of these variables.