Lithium-Oxygen Batteries and Related Systems: Potential, Status, and Future

Won Jin Kwak, None Rosy, Daniel Sharon, Chun Xia, Hun Kim, Lee R. Johnson, Peter G. Bruce*, Linda F. Nazar*, Yang Kook Sun*, Aryeh A. Frimer, Malachi Noked, Stefan A. Freunberger, Doron Aurbach*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

593 Scopus citations


The goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 °C requires a drastic reduction in CO2 emissions across many sectors of the world economy. Batteries are vital to this endeavor, whether used in electric vehicles, to store renewable electricity, or in aviation. Present lithium-ion technologies are preparing the public for this inevitable change, but their maximum theoretical specific capacity presents a limitation. Their high cost is another concern for commercial viability. Metal-air batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of all possible secondary battery technologies and could yield step changes in energy storage, if their practical difficulties could be overcome. The scope of this review is to provide an objective, comprehensive, and authoritative assessment of the intensive work invested in nonaqueous rechargeable metal-air batteries over the past few years, which identified the key problems and guides directions to solve them. We focus primarily on the challenges and outlook for Li-O2 cells but include Na-O2, K-O2, and Mg-O2 cells for comparison. Our review highlights the interdisciplinary nature of this field that involves a combination of materials chemistry, electrochemistry, computation, microscopy, spectroscopy, and surface science. The mechanisms of O2 reduction and evolution are considered in the light of recent findings, along with developments in positive and negative electrodes, electrolytes, electrocatalysis on surfaces and in solution, and the degradative effect of singlet oxygen, which is typically formed in Li-O2 cells.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)6626-6683
Number of pages58
JournalChemical Reviews
Issue number14
StatePublished - 22 Jul 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society.


Dive into the research topics of 'Lithium-Oxygen Batteries and Related Systems: Potential, Status, and Future'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this