Long Bone Panoramas from Fluoroscopic X-Ray Images

Ziv Yaniv*, Leo Joskowicz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


This paper presents a new method for creating a single panoramic image of a long bone from several individual fluoroscopic X-ray images. Panoramic images are useful preoperatively for diagnosis, and intraoperatively for long bone fragment alignment, for making anatomical measurements, and for documenting surgical outcomes. Our method composes individual overlapping images into an undistorted panoramic view that is the equivalent of a single X-ray image with a wide field of view. The correlations between the images are established from the graduations of a radiolucent ruler imaged alongside the long bone. Unlike existing methods, ours uses readily available hardware, requires a simple image acquisition protocol with minimal user input, and works with existing fluoroscopic C-arm units without modifications. It is robust and accurate, producing panoramas whose quality and spatial resolution is comparable to that of the individual images. The method has been successfully tested on in vitro and clinical cases.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)26-35
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2004

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported in part by a Grant from the Israel Ministry of Industry and Trade for the IZMEL Consortium on Image-Guided Therapy.


  • Fluoroscopic X-ray
  • Image registration
  • Panoramic images


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