Longitudinal study of an outbreak of Trypanosoma evansi infection in equids and dromedary camels in Israel

Dalia Berlin*, Abedelmajeed Nasereddin, Kifaya Azmi, Suheir Ereqat, Ziad Abdeen, Gad Baneth

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


An outbreak of trypanosomoasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi involving horses, camels and donkeys occurred in a farm in Israel. A longitudinal study of two outbreak phases was conducted which included clinical monitoring, blood smears, packed cell volume (PCV), serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by reverse dot blot (RDB) for the molecular detection of infection. This was the first reported T. evansi outbreak in domestic animals in Israel. Most of the camels on the farm (8/10; 80%) were diagnosed with T. evansi infection whereas infection was less prevalent in the horses (3/7; 43%) and donkeys (6/13; 46%). Clinical disease was evident in 4 camels and 1 horse exhibiting characteristic clinical signs, anemia and parasitemia detected on blood smears and by positive RDB. Six other animals were diagnosed as asymptomatic latent carriers by positive RDB and 6 additional animals were only seropositive and were considered suspected carriers. A significant difference was found in the mean PCV between symptomatic and latent carriers with severe anemia observed only in the symptomatic animals. An anaphylactic-like reaction, fatal in one case, was observed in 2 camels diagnosed with severe trypanosome parasitemia immediately following treatment with melarsenoxide cysteamine. Furthermore, recurrence of infection was documented in one camel 4 months post treatment.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)317-322
Number of pages6
JournalVeterinary Parasitology
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - 15 Dec 2010

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The study was partially funded by the Clinical Studies Fund of the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital and by the U.S. Middle East Regional Cooperation (MERC) Project NIH-NIAID contract No. TA-MOU-03-M23-015. The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Michael van Straten for making the initial diagnosis and to thank him for sharing his findings. The authors also thank Dr. Osnat Eyal for her instrumental technical work and Mr. Barak Horwitz, the owner of the farm, for his valued help and cooperation.


  • Anemia
  • Camels
  • Cymelarsan
  • Horses
  • Reverse dot blot
  • Trypanosoma evansi


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