The vascular system is unique in that extensive branching morphogenesis may take place in the adult. Developmental neovascularization is guided by precise spatial cues but vessel formation in the adult is not genetically programmed. Here, we review different adult modes for branch patterning, acquiring artery or vein identity and allocating vascular progenitor cells. The endothelium shows a remarkable degree of self-organization into a treelike network and hemodynamic forces are important in rectifying abnormal branching. This discussion is in the context of a contemplated therapy for improving organ perfusion by creating new vascular loops properly integrated within the existing network.