The properties of organic matter change during diagenesis and catagenesis, potentially altering the way shales deform and fracture. Although kerogen in mudrocks is thought to become stiffer during thermal maturation, few studies have been able to confirm this by direct measurement, as standard mechanical testing techniques cannot easily be used to measure the micrometer sized organic components in shales. Here, we use a new non-destructive atomic force microscopy technique to map the elastic modulus of organic and inorganic components at the nanometer scale in shales containing Type II kerogen from three different levels of thermal maturation. We found that when vitrinite reflectance increases from 0.40 to 0.82, the average Young modulus of kerogen increases from 6.1 GPa to 16.0 GPa. However, as %Ro increases further from 0.82 to 1.25, the modulus values for kerogen do not change significantly. In the samples that experienced catagenesis, the modulus maps reveal that individual kerogen macerals possess soft regions - interpreted as exuded bitumen - which act to soften the overall structure of the kerogen. As well as providing high resolution mechanical data, this technique could be used to track the way bitumen and other compounds are generated from kerogen during catagenesis.
|Original language||American English|
|Title of host publication||5th EAGE Shale Workshop|
|Subtitle of host publication||Quantifying Risks and Potential|
|Publisher||European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers, EAGE|
|Number of pages||4|
|State||Published - 2016|
|Event||5th EAGE Shale Workshop: Quantifying Risks and Potential - Catania, Italy|
Duration: 2 May 2016 → 4 May 2016
|Name||5th EAGE Shale Workshop: Quantifying Risks and Potential|
|Conference||5th EAGE Shale Workshop: Quantifying Risks and Potential|
|Period||2/05/16 → 4/05/16|
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© 2016, European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers. All rights reserved.