We consider stable mass transfer from the secondary to the primary of an extreme mass ratio binary system. We show that when the mass transfer is sufficiently fast, mass leakage occurs through the outer Lagrange point L2, in addition to the usual transfer through L1. We provide an analytical estimate for the mass leakage rate through L2 and find the conditions in which it is comparable to the mass transfer rate through L1. Focusing on a binary system of a mainsequence star and a supermassive black hole, driven by the emission of gravitational radiation, we show that it may sustain stable mass transfer, along with mass-loss through L2. If such a mass transferring system occurs at our Galactic Centre, it produces a gravitational wave signal detectable by future detectors, such as Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The signal evolves according to the star's adiabatic index and cooling time. For low-mass stars, the evolution is faster than the Kelvin-Helmholtz cooling rate driving the star out of the main-sequence. In some cases, the frequency and amplitude of the signal may both decrease with time, contrary to the standard chirp of a coalescing binary. Mass-loss through L2, when occurs, decreases the evolution time-scale of the emitted gravitational wave signal by up to a few tens of per cent. We conclude that L2 mass ejection is a crucial factor in analysing gravitational waves signals produced by such systems.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was partially supported by an iCore grant and an ISF grant. We thank Scott Tremaine, Kenta Hotokezaka and Sivan Ginzburg for useful discussions.
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- Binaries: general
- Gravitational waves
- Stars: mass-loss