Metabolic pathways in immune senescence and inflammaging: Novel therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammatory lung diseases. An EAACI position paper from the Task Force for Immunopharmacology

F. Roth-Walter, I. M. Adcock, C. Benito-Villalvilla, R. Bianchini, L. Bjermer, G. Caramori, L. Cari, K. F. Chung, Z. Diamant, I. Eguiluz-Gracia, E. F. Knol, M. Jesenak, F. Levi-Schaffer, G. Nocentini, L. O'Mahony, O. Palomares, F. Redegeld, M. Sokolowska, B. C.A.M. Van Esch, C. Stellato*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The accumulation of senescent cells drives inflammaging and increases morbidity of chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Immune responses are built upon dynamic changes in cell metabolism that supply energy and substrates for cell proliferation, differentiation, and activation. Metabolic changes imposed by environmental stress and inflammation on immune cells and tissue microenvironment are thus chiefly involved in the pathophysiology of allergic and other immune-driven diseases. Altered cell metabolism is also a hallmark of cell senescence, a condition characterized by loss of proliferative activity in cells that remain metabolically active. Accelerated senescence can be triggered by acute or chronic stress and inflammatory responses. In contrast, replicative senescence occurs as part of the physiological aging process and has protective roles in cancer surveillance and wound healing. Importantly, cell senescence can also change or hamper response to diverse therapeutic treatments. Understanding the metabolic pathways of senescence in immune and structural cells is therefore critical to detect, prevent, or revert detrimental aspects of senescence-related immunopathology, by developing specific diagnostics and targeted therapies. In this paper, we review the main changes and metabolic alterations occurring in senescent immune cells (macrophages, B cells, T cells). Subsequently, we present the metabolic footprints described in translational studies in patients with chronic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and review the ongoing preclinical studies and clinical trials of therapeutic approaches aiming at targeting metabolic pathways to antagonize pathological senescence. Because this is a recently emerging field in allergy and clinical immunology, a better understanding of the metabolic profile of the complex landscape of cell senescence is needed. The progress achieved so far is already providing opportunities for new therapies, as well as for strategies aimed at disease prevention and supporting healthy aging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1089-1122
Number of pages34
JournalAllergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Allergy published by European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • cell metabolism
  • immune senescence
  • immunometabolism
  • inflammaging
  • senolytic drugs
  • senomorphic drugs


Dive into the research topics of 'Metabolic pathways in immune senescence and inflammaging: Novel therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammatory lung diseases. An EAACI position paper from the Task Force for Immunopharmacology'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this