MIMO detection for high-order QAM based on a gaussian tree approximation

Jacob Goldberger*, Amir Leshem

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Scopus citations


This paper proposes a new detection algorithm for MIMO communication systems employing high-order QAM constellations. The factor graph that corresponds to this problem is very loopy; in fact, it is a complete graph. Hence, a straightforward application of the Belief Propagation (BP) algorithm yields very poor results. Our algorithm is based on an optimal tree approximation of the Gaussian density of the unconstrained linear system. The finite-set constraint is then applied to obtain a cycle-free discrete distribution. Simulation results show that even though the approximation is not directly applied to the exact discrete distribution, applying the BP algorithm to the cycle-free factor graph outperforms current methods in terms of both performance and complexity. The improved performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on the problem of MIMO detection.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number5961820
Pages (from-to)4973-4982
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • High-order QAM
  • MIMO communication systems
  • MIMO-OFDM systems
  • integer least squares


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