This paper describes a novel system for precise automatic targeting in minimally invasive neurosurgery. The system consists of a miniature robot fitted with a rigid mechanical guide for needle, catheter, or probe insertion. Intraoperatively, the robot is directly affixed to the patient skull or to a head clamp. It automatically positions itself with respect to predefined targets in a preoperative CT/MRI image following a three-way anatomical registration with an intraoperative 3D-laser scan of the patient face features. We describe the system architecture, surgical protocol, software modules, and implementation. Registration results on 19 pairs of real MRI and 3D laser scan data show an RMS error of 1.0 mm (std = 0.95 mm) in 2 s.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported in part by a grant from the Israel Ministry of Industry and Trade under a Magneton Grant.
- Computer-aided neurosurgery
- Medical robotics
- Multimodal registration