## Abstract

An unknown m by n matrix X_{0} is to be estimated from noisy measurements Y = X_{0} + Z, where the noise matrix Z has i.i.d. Gaussian entries. A popular matrix denoising scheme solves the nuclear norm penalization problem min_{X} |Y-X|^{2} _{F}/2+λ|X|∗, where |X|∗ denotes the nuclear norm (sum of singular values). This is the analog, for matrices, of l_{1} penalization in the vector case. It has been empirically observed that if X_{0} has low rank, it may be recovered quite accurately from the noisy measurement Y. In a proportional growth framework where the rank r_{n}, number of rows mn and number of columns n all tend to ∞ proportionally to each other (r_{n}/m_{n} → ρ, m_{n}/n → β), we evaluate the asymptotic minimax MSE M(ρ,β) = lim_{mn,n→∞} inf_{λ} sup _{rank(X)≤rn} MSE(X_{0}, X_{λ}). Our formulas involve incomplete moments of the quarter-and semi-circle laws (β = 1, square case) and the Marčenko-Pastur law (β < 1, nonsquare case). For finite m and n, we show that MSE increases as the nonzero singular values of X_{0} grow larger. As a result, the finite-n worst-case MSE, a quantity which can be evaluated numerically, is achieved when the signal X_{0} is "infinitely strong". The nuclear norm penalization problem is solved by applying soft thresholding to the singular values of Y. We also derive the minimax threshold, namely the value λ∗.(ρ), which is the optimal place to threshold the singular values. All these results are obtained for general (nonsquare, nonsymmetric) real matrices. Comparable results are obtained for square symmetric nonnegativedefinite matrices.

Original language | American English |
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Pages (from-to) | 2413-2440 |

Number of pages | 28 |

Journal | Annals of Statistics |

Volume | 42 |

Issue number | 6 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1 Dec 2014 |

Externally published | Yes |

### Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:© 2014 Institute of Mathematical Statistics.

## Keywords

- Matrix completion from Gaussian measurements
- Matrix denoising
- Monotonicity of power functions of multivariate tests
- Nuclear norm minimization
- Optimal threshold
- Phase transition
- Singular value thresholding
- Stein unbiased risk estimate