Mitigating risks and maximizing sustainability of treated wastewater reuse for irrigation

David Yalin, Hillary A. Craddock, Shmuel Assouline, Evyatar Ben Mordechay, Alon Ben-Gal, Nirit Bernstein, Rabia M. Chaudhry, Benny Chefetz, Despo Fatta-Kassinos, Bernd M. Gawlik, Kerry A. Hamilton, Leron Khalifa, Isaya Kisekka, Iftach Klapp, Hila Korach-Rechtman, Daniel Kurtzman, Guy J. Levy, Roberta Maffettone, Sixto Malato, Célia M. ManaiaKyriakos Manoli, Orah F. Moshe, Andrew Rimelman, Luigi Rizzo, David L. Sedlak, Maya Shnit-Orland, Eliav Shtull-Trauring, Jorge Tarchitzky, Venus Welch-White, Clinton Williams, Jean McLain, Eddie Cytryn*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Scarcity of freshwater for agriculture has led to increased utilization of treated wastewater (TWW), establishing it as a significant and reliable source of irrigation water. However, years of research indicate that if not managed adequately, TWW may deleteriously affect soil functioning and plant productivity, and pose a hazard to human and environmental health. This review leverages the experience of researchers, stakeholders, and policymakers from Israel, the United-States, and Europe to present a holistic, multidisciplinary perspective on maximizing the benefits from municipal TWW use for irrigation. We specifically draw on the extensive knowledge gained in Israel, a world leader in agricultural TWW implementation. The first two sections of the work set the foundation for understanding current challenges involved with the use of TWW, detailing known and emerging agronomic and environmental issues (such as salinity and phytotoxicity) and public health risks (such as contaminants of emerging concern and pathogens). The work then presents solutions to address these challenges, including technological and agronomic management-based solutions as well as source control policies. The concluding section presents suggestions for the path forward, emphasizing the importance of improving links between research and policy, and better outreach to the public and agricultural practitioners. We use this platform as a call for action, to form a global harmonized data system that will centralize scientific findings on agronomic, environmental and public health effects of TWW irrigation. Insights from such global collaboration will help to mitigate risks, and facilitate more sustainable use of TWW for food production in the future.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number100203
JournalWater Research X
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s)


  • Agronomic and environmental risks
  • Contaminants of emerging concern
  • Policy and outreach
  • Treated wastewater irrigation
  • Wastewater treatment processes


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