Modern practices in electrophoretic deposition to manufacture energy storage electrodes

Barun Kumar Chakrabarti*, Metin Gençten, Gerard Bree, Anh Ha Dao, Daniel Mandler, Chee Tong John Low*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


The applications of electrophoretic deposition (EPD) to the development of electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices such as batteries and supercapacitors are reviewed. A discussion on the selection of parameters for optimizing EPD electrode performance, such as light-directed EPD, co-deposition of active materials such as metal oxides and materials manufactured with high porosity and fibrous properties is highlighted. Additionally, means for overcoming obstacles in the improvement of the mechanical properties, conductivity and surface area of EES materials are discussed. The exceptional benefits of EPD such as low cost, small processing time, simple apparatus requirements, homogeneous coatings, binder-free deposits and selective modification associated with thickness and mass loadings leading to effective EES electrode materials are highlighted. Finally, EPD processes have evolved as modern manufacturing tools to produce technologically improved solid electrolytes and separators for lithium-ion and/or sodium-ion batteries, and further research and development programmes are encouraged towards industrialisation.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)13205-13250
Number of pages46
JournalInternational Journal of Energy Research
Issue number10
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Cathodic EPD was initially commercialized by PPG, which became an industrially relevant process for the corrosion protection of vehicle panels. Of late, PPG acquired financial support of $2.2‐million from the US Department of Energy (DOE) for investigating the comparative application of EPD against standard slot‐die casting for the preparation of LiB electrodes. PPG's process concentrates on tackling engineering approaches of EPD to prepare sophisticated LiB materials and devices in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. 280

Funding Information:
This work has received financial support from Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council First Grant: Energy Storage Electrode Manufacture (EP/P026818/1) and EPSRC Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund: 3D Electrodes from 2D Materials (EP/R023034/1). Funding has enabled Prof. Low to initiate a research group and establish programmes from electrode to cell testing and recycling of lithium‐ion battery, both Assistant Professor (2013) and Associate Professor (2019) in WMG, University of Warwick, United Kingdom. World‐class battery prototyping facility and resources of industrial relevance provided by the High Value Manufacturing Catapult at Warwick are fully acknowledged. D. Mandler acknowledges the support of Israel National Research Center for Electrochemical Propulsion (INREP).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. International Journal of Energy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • electrode materials
  • electrophoretic deposition
  • lithium-ion batteries
  • sodium-ion batteries
  • supercapacitors


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