Molecular imaging allows the non-invasive assessment of membrane transporter expression and function in living subjects. Such technologies have the potential to become diagnostic and prognostic tools, allowing detection, localization, and prediction of response of tumors and their metastases to therapy. Beyond tumors, imaging can also help understand the role of transporters in adverse drug effects and drug clearance. Here, we review molecular imaging technologies that monitor transporter-mediated processes. We emphasize emerging probe substrates and potential clinical applications of imaging the function of membrane transporters in cancer.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors acknowledge the support of the Israeli Cancer Research Foundation (ICRF) and the Israel Science Foundation (ISF) Grant 506/13.
© 2015, American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.
- membrane transporters
- molecular imaging
- multidrug resistance
- near infrared
- optical imaging