Objective To characterize all 4 mutations described for CD59 congenital deficiency. Methods The 4 mutations, p.Cys64Tyr, p.Asp24Val, p.Asp24Valfs, and p.Ala16Alafs, were described in 13 individuals with CD59 malfunction. All 13 presented with recurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, recurrent strokes, and chronic hemolysis. Here, we track the molecular consequences of the 4 mutations and their effects on CD59 expression, localization, glycosylation, degradation, secretion, and function. Mutants were cloned and inserted into plasmids to analyze their expression, localization, and functionality. Results Immunolabeling of myc-tagged wild-type (WT) and mutant CD59 proteins revealed cell surface expression of p.Cys64Tyr and p.Asp24Val detected with the myc antibody, but no labeling by anti-CD59 antibodies. In contrast, frameshift mutants p.Asp24Valfs and p.Ala16Alafs were detected only intracellularly and did not reach the cell surface. Western blot analysis showed normal glycosylation but mutant-specific secretion patterns. All mutants significantly increased MAC-dependent cell lysis compared with WT. In contrast to CD59 knockout mice previously used to characterize phenotypic effects of CD59 perturbation, all 4 hCD59 mutations generate CD59 proteins that are expressed and may function intracellularly (4) or on the cell membrane (2). None of the 4 CD59 mutants are detected by known anti-CD59 antibodies, including the 2 variants present on the cell membrane. None of the 4 inhibits membrane attack complex (MAC) formation. Conclusions All 4 mutants generate nonfunctional CD59, 2 are expressed as cell surface proteins that may function in non-MAC-related interactions and 2 are expressed only intracellularly. Distinct secretion of soluble CD59 may have also a role in disease pathogenesis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Legacy Heritage Biomedical Program of the Israel Science Foundation (grant no. 1070/15 to D.M.). No author has a financial relationship with any company in relation with this study.
© 2018 The Author(s).