Hepatitis A caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV) transmitted by the fecal-oral route, results in considerable morbidity and economic loss. Mucosal immunization can be more effective than conventional injection at inducing both local and systemic immunity to HAV. Here we show that co-administration of killed HAV with synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing CpG sequences, and a novel polycationic sphingolipid (CCS)/cholesterol liposomal delivery system, markedly enhances the HAV-specific antibody response at the intestinal interface, particularly when delivered intrarectally or intranasally, to Balb/c mice at low HAV doses. A mucosally delivered, antigen-sparing HAV vaccine that is easily administered without specialized equipment or personnel, is an attractive alternative for facilitating mass immunization in hepatitis A outbreaks.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by grants from the Israeli Ministry of Science through its National Knowledge Center in Gene Therapy at Hadassah-Hebrew University Hospital in Jerusalem (EG), and by grants from the Grinspoon, Blum, and Horowitz Foundations provided to the Gene Therapy Center (EG), and by Israeli Ministry of Absorption for Immigrant Scientists (LAM).
- Cationic lipid delivery system
- CpG motifs
- Hepatitis A
- Synthetic ODN adjuvants