New evidence has challenged the outdated dogma that neutrophils are a homogeneous population of short-lived cells. Although neutrophil subpopulations with distinct functions have been reported under homeostatic and pathological conditions, a full understanding of neutrophil heterogeneity and plasticity is currently lacking. We review here current knowledge of neutrophil heterogeneity and diversity, highlighting the need for deep genomic, phenotypic, and functional profiling of the identified neutrophil subpopulations to determine whether these cells truly represent bona fide novel neutrophil subsets. We suggest that progress in understanding neutrophil heterogeneity will allow the identification of clinically relevant neutrophil subpopulations that may be used in the diagnosis of specific diseases and lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank M.A. Cassatella for critical suggestions and helpful comments. This work was supported by grants from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DGF; grant SFB1123 TP A6 ) and the Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftung (EKFS, 2016_A118 ) (to C.S.R); the Israeli Cancer Research Foundation ( 01229/17 ) and the Israel Science Foundation ( 2122/16 ) (to Z.G.F); the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (to M.G.); the Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro (AIRC, IG20339 ) and Fondazione Cariverona (to P.S.). This work was also supported by European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action BM1404 Mye-EUNITER ( www.mye-euniter.eu ); COST is supported by the EU Framework Program Horizon 2020.
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd
- immune regulation