Novel non-methylated furan fatty acids in fish from a zero discharge aquaculture system

Walter Vetter*, Kerstin Ulms, Christine Wendlinger, Jaap van Rijn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: Furan fatty acids (F-acids) are valuable minor fatty acids which are appraised for their protective role against lipid oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The most relevant dietary source for F-acids is fish with the predominant occurrence of up to five dimethyl- or monomethyl-substituted homologues. During the screening of fish from a zero discharge aquaculture (ZDA) system we noted the potential presence of unusual F-acids. Methods: We developed a method by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry operated in the selected ion monitoring mode for elucidation of the structures of the uncommon F-acids. Results: Carp from the ZDA system contained seven non-methylated F-acids with dominance of 8-(5-hexylfuran-2-yl)-octanoic acid (8F6). Non-methylated F-acids have never been detected before in fish. Subsequent analysis of other fish species and a batch of the fish feed confirmed the presence of non-methylated F-acids. Conclusions: F-acids in fish are derived from the feed. Our investigation indicates that more emphasis should be put on the F-acid concentrations in fish from aquaculture, which appears to depend on the quality of the fish feed.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)8-14
Number of pages7
JournalNFS Journal
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The research was funded by the Ministry of Science, Research and Arts, Baden-Württemberg (Germany) in the framework of the partnership program between the Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Faculties of Agricultural and Natural Sciences of the University of Hohenheim.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 The Authors.


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