## Abstract

We study the structure of non-expanding sets in the Grassmann graph. We put forth a hypothesis stating that every small set whose expansion is smaller than 1 − must be correlated with one of a specified list of sets which are isomorphic to smaller Grassmann graphs. We develop a framework of Fourier analysis for analyzing functions over the Grassmann graph, and prove that our hypothesis holds for all sets whose expansion is below 7/8. In the companion submitted paper [Dinur, Khot, Kindler, Minzer and Safra, STOC 2018], the authors show that a linearity agreement hypothesis implies an NP-hardness gap of 1/2 − vs for unique games and other inapproximability results. In [Barak, Kothari and Steurer, ECCC TR18-077], the authors show that the hypothesis in this work implies the linearity agreement hypothesis of [Dinur, Khot, Kindler, Minzer and Safra, STOC 2018]. Combined with our main theorem here this proves a version of the linearity agreement hypothesis with certain specific parameters. Short of proving the entire hypothesis, this nevertheless suffices for getting new unconditional NP hardness gaps for label cover with 2-to-1 and unique constraints. Our Expansion Hypothesis has been subsequently proved in its full form [Khot, Minzer and Safra, ECCC TR18-006] thereby proving the agreement hypothesis of [Dinur, Khot, Kindler, Minzer and Safra, STOC 2018] and completing the proof of the 2-to-1 Games Conjecture (albeit with imperfect completeness).

Original language | American English |
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Title of host publication | STOC 2018 - Proceedings of the 50th Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing |

Editors | Monika Henzinger, David Kempe, Ilias Diakonikolas |

Publisher | Association for Computing Machinery |

Pages | 1193-1206 |

Number of pages | 14 |

ISBN (Electronic) | 9781450355599 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 20 Jun 2018 |

Event | 50th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2018 - Los Angeles, United States Duration: 25 Jun 2018 → 29 Jun 2018 |

### Publication series

Name | Proceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing |
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ISSN (Print) | 0737-8017 |

### Conference

Conference | 50th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2018 |
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Country/Territory | United States |

City | Los Angeles |

Period | 25/06/18 → 29/06/18 |

### Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:© 2018 Association for Computing Machinery.

## Keywords

- 2-to-2 games
- Grassmann graph
- PCP
- Unique games