Objective: Executive function deficits (EFD) are a central mechanism underlying negative outcomes in ADHD. This study examined awareness of EFD manifested in “real-time” task performance (Online Awareness) and in general self-knowledge of daily activities, outside the context of a specific task (Intellectual Awareness) among adolescents with and without ADHD. Methods: 102 adolescents with (n = 52) and without (n = 50) ADHD were administered Weekly Calendar Planning Activity (WCPA) and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Parents completed the BRIEF parent version. Awareness was defined using the discrepancy paradigm: performance versus estimation on WCPA for online awareness; self versus parent report on the BRIEF for intellectual awareness. Results: Adolescents with ADHD overestimated their performance on the WCPA and underestimated their EFD on the BRIEF compared to parent’s ratings. The discrepancy scores in both types of awareness were significantly larger among ADHD than controls (p <.005). Conclusions: Adolescents with ADHD demonstrate significantly lower rates of online and intellectual awareness of EFD compared to controls.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
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- Positive Illusory Bias (PIB)
- ecological assessment
- functional impairment